Thursday, January 28, 2010

Para uma verdadeira compreensão do islão: a proibição da música

É muito provável que esta entrada surpreenda a maioria dos leitores, mesmo os mais familiarizados com o islão.
Eu fiquei surpreendido; não julguei que o fanatismo insano do islão fosse ao ponto de proibir a música. Ingenuidade minha: se o islão proíbe o retrato na pintura e proíbe a escultura de formas humanas - artes tão estimadas pela cultura ocidental - por que razão havemos de ficar surpreendidos pelo facto do islão proibir a música?

Passemos à fundamentação do que estamos a afirmar.
Colo passagens de uma análise do problema publicada no sítio Islam Q&A, em resposta à pergunta de um leitor. Faço notar que o autor do texto se socorre das mais altas autoridades do islão para fundamentar as suas afirmações, começando pelo Alcorão - palavras textuais de Alá dirigidas a Mafoma pela voz do arcanjo Gabriel - e suas interpretações por teólogos respeitados pela umá; seguindo para as ahadith e sua exegese; concluindo com referências aos fundadores de duas das maiores escolas sunitas, a Maliki e a Hanbali.
Evidence of prohibition in the Qur’aan and Sunnah:

«Allaah says in Soorat Luqmaan (interpretation of the meaning):

“And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. music, singing) to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah…” [Luqmaan 31:6]

The scholar of the ummah, Ibn ‘Abbaas (...) said: this means singing. Mujaahid (...) said: this means playing the drum (tabl). (Tafseer al-Tabari, 21/40).

Al-Hasan al-Basri (...) said: this aayah was revealed concerning singing and musical instruments (lit. woodwind instruments). (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/451).

Al-Sa’di (...) said: this includes all manner of haraam [n.ed.: proibido] (...) singing and musical instruments of the Shaytaan; and musical instruments which are of no spiritual or worldly benefit. (Tafseer al-Sa’di, 6/150)

Ibn al-Qayyim (...) said: The interpretation of the Sahaabah [n.ed.: os Companheiros do profeta Mafoma] and Taabi’in [n.ed.: os Seguidores], that ‘idle talk’ refers to singing, is sufficient. This was reported with saheeh isnaads [n.ed.: conhecimento autêntico das ahadith] from Ibn ‘Abbaas and Ibn Mas’ood. Abu’l-Sahbaa’ said: I asked Ibn Mas’ood about the aayah [n.ed.: prodígio, milagre, os versículos do Alcorão por antonomásia] (interpretation of the meaning), ‘“And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks’ [Luqmaan 31:6]. He said: By Allaah, besides Whom there is no other god, this means singing – and he repeated it three times. It was also reported with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn ‘Umar (...) that this means singing. There is no contradiction between the interpretation of “idle talk” as meaning singing and the interpretation of it as meaning stories of the Persians and their kings, and the kings of the Romans, and so on, such as al-Nadr ibn al-Haarith used to tell to the people of Makkah to distract them from the Qur’aan. Both of them are idle talk. Hence Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “Idle talk” is falsehood and singing. Some of the Sahaabah said one and some said the other, and some said both. Singing is worse and more harmful than stories of kings, because it leads to zinaa and makes hypocrisy grow (in the heart); it is the trap of the Shaytaan, and it clouds the mind. The way in which it blocks people from the Qur’aan is worse than the way in which other kinds of false talk block them, because people are naturally inclined towards it and tend to want to listen to it. The aayah condemn replacing the Qur’aan with idle talk in order to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah without knowledge and taking it as a joke, because when an aayah of the Qur’aan is recited to such a person, he turns his back as if he heard them not, as if there were deafness in his ear. If he hears anything of it, he makes fun of it. All of this happens only in the case of the people who are most stubbornly kaafirs and if some of it happens to singers and those who listen to them, they both have a share of this blame. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/258-259).»

Depois desta série de interpretações do significado de Alcorão 31:6, o texto prossegue com a análise de um outro versículo alcorânico:

«Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“[Allaah said to Iblees:] And befool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice (i.e. songs, music, and any other call for Allaah’s disobedience)…” [al-Israa’ 17:64]

It was narrated that Mujaahid (...) said: “And befool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice” – his voice [the voice of Iblees/Shaytaan] is singing and falsehood. Ibn al-Qayyim (...) said: This idaafah [possessive or genitive construction, i.e., your voice] serves to make the meaning specific, as with the phrases [translated as] “your cavalry” and “your infantry” [later in the same aayah]. Everyone who speaks in any way that is not obedient to Allaah, everyone who blows into a flute or other woodwind instrument, or who plays any haraam kind of drum, this is the voice of the Shaytaan. (...). (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan).»

E ainda mais um versículo alcorânico:
«Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Do you then wonder at this recitation (the Qur’aan)?

And you laugh at it and weep not,

Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)”

[al-Najm 53:59-61]

‘Ikrimah (...) said: it was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that al-sumood [verbal noun from saamidoon, translated here as “Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)”] means “singing”, in the dialect of Himyar; it might be said “Ismidi lanaa” [‘sing for us’ – from the same root as saamidoon/sumood] meaning “ghaniy” [sing]. And he said (...): When they [the kuffaar] heard the Qur’aan, they would sing, then this aayah was revealed.

Ibn Katheer (...) said: Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning) “Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)” – Sufyaan al-Thawri said, narrating from his father from Ibn ‘Abbaas: (this means) singing. This is Yemeni (dialect): ismad lana means ghan lana [sing to us]. This was also the view of ‘Ikrimah. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer).»

Acompanhemos o autor deste comentário, agora na análise de uma importante hadith:
«The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Among my ummah there will certainly be people who permit zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments…” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari ta’leeqan, no. 5590; [...]).


This hadeeth indicates in two ways that musical instruments and enjoyment of listening to music are haraam. The first is the fact that the Prophet (...) said: “[they] permit” which clearly indicates that the things mentioned, including musical instruments, are haraam according to sharee’ah, but those people will permit them. The second is the fact that musical instruments are mentioned alongside things which are definitely known to be haraam, i.e., zinaa [n.ed.: fornicação] and alcohol: if they (musical instruments) were not haraam, why would they be mentioned alongside these things? (adapted from al-Silsilah al-Saheehah by al-Albaani, 1/140-141)»

Esta observação é de extrema importância, uma vez que a ignorada proibição da música pelo islão é equiparada nesta hadith à bem conhecida e universalmente aplicada proibição das bebidas alcoólicas no islão.

Voltemos à análise da questão central desta entrada, a proibição da música pelo islão, tratando ainda desta hadith:

«Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah) (...) said: This hadeeth indicates that ma’aazif are haraam, and ma’aazif means musical instruments according to the scholars of (Arabic) language. This word includes all such instruments. (al-Majmoo’, 11/535).

Ibn al-Qayyim (...) said: And concerning the same topic similar comments were narrated from Sahl ibn Sa’d al-Saa’idi, ‘Imraan ibn Husayn, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Umaamah al-Baahili, ‘Aa’ishah Umm al-Mu’mineen, ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib, Anas ibn Maalik, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Saabit and al-Ghaazi ibn Rabee’ah. Then he mentioned it in Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, and it indicates that they (musical instruments) are haraam

Atente-se à quantidade de autoridades invocadas. Adiante:

«The views of the scholars (imaams) of Islam

Al-Qaasim (...) said: Singing is part of falsehood. Al-Hasan (...) said: if there is music involved in a dinner invitation (waleemah), do not accept the invitation (al-Jaami by al-Qayrawaani, p. 262-263).

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (...) said: The view of the four Imaams is that all kinds of musical instruments are haraam. It was reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari and elsewhere that the Prophet (...) said that there would be among his ummah those who would allow zinaa [n.ed.: fornicação] , silk, alcohol and musical instruments, and he said that they would be transformed into monkeys and pigs… None of the followers of the imaams mentioned any dispute concerning the matter of music. (al-Majmoo’, 11/576).

Al-Albaani (...) said: The four madhhabs [n.ed.: as quatro escolas da jurisprudência islâmica] are agreed that all musical instruments are haraam. (al-Saheehah, 1/145).»

Note-se que o autor desta análise assinala a unanimidade, quanto a esta matéria, entre as quatro escolas da jurisprudência islâmica. Continuemos:

«Ibn al-Qayyim (...) said: The madhhab of Abu Haneefah is the strictest in this regard, and his comments are among the harshest. His companions clearly stated that it is haraam to listen to all musical instruments such as the flute and the drum, even tapping a stick. They stated that it is a sin which implies that a person is a faasiq (rebellious evil doer) whose testimony should be rejected. They went further than that and said that listening to music is fisq (rebellion, evildoing) and enjoying it is kufr (disbelief). This is their words. They narrated in support of that a hadeeth which could not be attributed to the Prophet (...). They said: he should try not to hear it if he passes by it or it is in his vicinity. Abu Yoosuf said, concerning a house from which could be heard the sound of musical instruments: Go in without their permission, because forbidding evil actions is obligatory, and if it were not allowed to enter without permission, people could not have fulfilled the obligatory duty (of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil). (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/425).»
Urge interromper esta explanação para realçar a importância da posição da escola Hanafi a respeito desta matéria: o seu extremismo vai ao ponto de legitimar a invasão de propriedade alheia para impedir que seja tocada música.
Presumo que esta obrigação de pôr cobro à grave falta de tocar música e de cantar possa estar na origem da proibição imposta aos dhimmi de cantar nas suas celebrações com tal intensidade que se oiça no exterior (cf. Para uma verdadeira compreensão do islão: os dhimmi: judeus e cristãos sob domínio islâmico); e na tentativa de aplicar a sharia em diversos países ocidentais, como esta:

«They praised the Lord by singing their hearts out and chanting prayers at packed services.

But members of a congregation in north London have abandoned their church - because of a council noise ban.

The Immanuel International Christian Centre was ordered to keep its amplified music and sermons quieter after a neighbour complained.

But the church's pastor Dunni Odetoyinbo claimed Waltham Forest council had only told them to keep quiet so as not to offend the Muslim community....

In court Mrs Odetoyinbo, 55, claimed a council officer had asked her 'to keep the noise down so as not to offend the Muslim community'.

But magistrates rejected the appeal, and ordered the church to pay £2,250 costs.

It can now only play music for 20 minutes on a Sunday between 11.30am and 11.50pm....»

Esta pretensão muçulmana de fazer calar o culto cristão parece estar longe de ser um caso isolado.
Prossigamos com a afirmação de que os rendimentos obtidos como honorários por tocar música são como os rendimentos da prostituição:

«Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (...) said: Among the types of earnings which are haraam by scholarly consensus are ribaa, the fee of a prostitute, anything forbidden, bribes, payment for wailing over the dead and singing, payments to fortune-tellers and those who claim to know the unseen and astrologers, payments for playing flutes, and all kinds of gambling. (al-Kaafi).»

A seguir, afirma-se que a construção e a venda de instrumentos musicais também são proibidas e que a sua destruição, mesmo tratando-se de propriedade alheia, é permitida. Esta posição é defendida pela escola Maliqui:

«Ibn Taymiyah (...) said: It is not permissible to make musical instruments. (al-Majmoo’, 22/140). And he said: According to the majority of fuqahaa’, it is permissible to destroy musical instruments, such as the tanboor [a stringed instrument similar to a mandolin]. This is the view of Maalik and is the more famous of the two views narrated from Ahmad. (al-Majmoo’, 28/113). (...) Abu Thawr, al-Nu’maan – Abu Haneefah (...) – and Ya’qoob and Muhammad, two of the students of Abu Haneefah said: (...) This is our view. And he said: musical instruments are the wine of the soul, and what it does to the soul is worse than what intoxicating drinks do. (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 10/417).

Ibn Abi Shaybah (...) reported that a man broke a mandolin belonging to another man, and the latter took his case to Shurayh. But Shurayh did not award him any compensation – i.e., he did not make the first man pay the cost of the mandolin, because it was haraam and had no value. (al-Musannaf, 5/395).

Al-Baghawi (...) stated in a fatwa that it is haraam to sell all kinds of musical instruments such as mandolins, flutes, etc. (...) (Sharh al-Sunnah, 8/28)»

O autor da análise prossegue defendendo a autenticidade das ahadith que proíbem a música e respondendo a outras críticas:

«Some people even have the nerve to suggest that the Sahaabah [n.ed.: os Companheiros do profeta Mafoma] and Taabi’in [n.ed.: os Seguidores] listened to singing, and that they saw nothing wrong with it!

Al-Fawzaan (...) said: We demand them to show us saheeh isnaads going back to these Sahaabah [n.ed.: os Companheiros do profeta Mafoma] and Taabi’in [n.ed.: os Seguidores], proving what they attribute to them. (...).

Some of them said that the ahaadeeth which forbid music are full of faults. (...) . Ibn Baaz (...) said: The ahaadeeth which were narrated concerning music being haraam are not full of faults as has been claimed. Some of them are in Saheeh al-Bukhaari which is the soundest of books after the Book of Allaah (...).

All the imaams agreed on the soundness of the ahaadeeth which forbid singing and musical instruments, apart from Abu Haamid al-Ghazzaali, but al-Ghazzaali did not have knowledge of hadeeth (...).

Some of them said that the scholars forbade singing because it is mentioned alongside gatherings in which alcohol is drunk and where people stay up late at night for evil purposes.

Al-Shawkaani (...) said: The response to this is that mentioning these things in conjunction does not only mean that what is haraam is what is joined together in this manner. Otherwise this would mean that zinaa [n.ed.: fornicação], as mentioned in the ahaadeeth, is not haraam unless it is accompanied by alcohol and the use of musical instruments.»
Passemos à conclusão tirada pelo autor desta análise:
«Perhaps – for fair-minded and objective readers – this summary will make it clear that the view that music is permissible has no firm basis. There are no two views on this matter. So we must advise in the best manner, and then take it step by step and denounce music, if we are able to do so. We should not be deceived by the fame of a man in our own times in which the people who are truly committed to Islam have become strangers. The one who says that singing and musical instruments are permitted is simply supporting the whims of people nowadays, as if the masses were issuing fatwas and he is simply signing them! If a matter arises, they will look at the views of fuqahaa’ on this matter, then they will take the easiest view, as they claim. Then they will look for evidence, or just specious arguments which are worth no more than a lump of dead meat. How often have these people approved things in the name of sharee’ah which in fact have nothing to do with Islam!

Strive to learn your Islam from the Book of your Lord and the Sunnah of your Prophet. Do not say, So-and-so said, for you cannot learn the truth only from men. Learn the truth and then measure people against it. (...) May what we have written above heal the hearts of the believers and dispel the whispers in the hearts of those who are stricken with insinuating whispers. May it expose everyone who is deviating from the path of Revelation and taking the easiest options, thinking that he has come up with something which none of the earlier generations ever achieved, and speaking about Allaah without knowledge. They sought to avoid fisq (evildoing) and ended up committing bid’ah [n.ed.: inovação] – may Allaah not bless them in it. It would have been better for them to follow the path of the believers.

And Allaah knows best. (...)»
Concluímos esta entrada sobre a proibição da música no islão antecipando a expectável objecção segundo a qual a putativa proibição islâmica da música não é frequente (diga-se de passagem que já lemos diversas notícias dando conta da destruição de bancas de venda de suportes fonográficos no Paquistão, levados a cabo por taliban) e que é improvável que venha a ser aplicada numa Europa islamizada.
A nossa intenção com esta entrada é pôr em evidência o facto de que o islão é incompatível com o nosso modo de vida; que o problema não está nas pessoas, nos muçulmanos, mas no seu livro e nas suas tradições exegéticas.
E nada nos garante que, caso o islão prevaleça na Europa, esta proibição - como vimos, tão firmemente ancorada no Alcorão, nas ahadith e na jurisprudência islâmica - não venha a ser aplicada.

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